The first trace of public speaking can be found in Ancient Greece, around 2500 years ago. The Greeks were the first people to widely develop the art of rhetoric, which is the ability to speak effectively and persuasively. At that time, people needed to speak in public to present themself in court or to argue in front of an assembly.
If you are interested to know more about the history of public speaking, keep reading the article. Below, we will take a more detailed look at the origins of public speaking and how it has evolved over time.
History of Public Speaking
Public speaking has been around for millenia, and it has evolved a lot throughout this time. Let’s take a look at the history of public speaking.
Public Speaking in Classical Periods
The art of public speaking can be traced back to classical ancient times. In fact, the word ” rhetoric” comes from the Greek word “rhetorike,” which means “the art of persuasion.” Aristotle’s treatise on rhetoric, which was written in the fourth century BCE, is one of the first texts that discuss how to effectively communicate to an audience. This is proof that public speaking is an ancient art that has been around for a long time.
Being recorded as the first teacher of oratory, Aristotle presented specific rules and models on how to speak to an audience. He advised orators to use ethos (credibility), pathos (emotion), and logos (reason) in their speeches in order to persuade their listeners. In addition, Aristotle discussed the different types of speeches that can be given, such as deliberative, forensic, epideictic, and ceremonial. These different types of speeches are still used today.
In that age, public speaking was mainly used for political and legal purposes. Citizens need to speak on their own behalf in front of an audience to make their case and argue for what they believe in. This was the time when rhetoric flourished as an art form.
Notable Figures in Public Speaking from Classical Periods
There are many famous figures in rhetoric in classical periods. Some of them include:
Aspasia of Miletus
Aspasia was a philosopher and teacher of rhetoric who lived in the fourth century BCE. She is considered the mother of rhetoric and was involved in debates and speeches in her time. She also taught Socrates.
Socrates is considered one of the founders of Western philosophy and is best known for his Socratic dialogues. He was a student of Aspasia, and he taught his students how to think for themselves and question the opinions of others.
Plato wrote extensively on the subject of rhetoric and dialectic. As per Plato, rhetoric was more of an art to describe the truth to the audience. He believed that rhetoric can be used both for good and bad purposes.
The most notable figure in rhetoric, Aristotle, wrote “On Rhetoric,” which is a treatise on the subject. In this work, he discusses the different types of speeches and how to effectively communicate with an audience. He also introduced the concepts of ethos, pathos, and logos.
Cicero was a Roman statesman who is considered one of the greatest orators in history. He is well-known to date for his speeches and for developing the five canons of rhetoric. It is a five-step procedure to create an effective speech, which is still used today.
Quintilian was a Roman rhetorician who wrote “Institutes of Oratory,” a twelve-volume work on the art of rhetoric. In this work, Quintilian discusses the different types of speeches and how to deliver them effectively. He also stresses the importance of ethics in public speaking.
Public Speaking in the Middle Ages
The art of rhetoric declined during this time period. This was due to the fact that the Church held a lot of power, and they discouraged the use of rhetoric. They believed that rhetoric could be used to deceive people and lead them astray from the truth.
During the medieval period, public speaking was mainly used for religious purposes. For example, sermons were given in churches to teach the congregation about the Bible.
Notable Figures in Public Speaking from the Middle Ages
There are not as many notable figures in rhetoric from the medieval period. However, some of them include:
Saint Bernard of Clairvaux
Saint Bernard was a Burgundian abbot and one of the most influential Church leaders during the medieval period. He is best known for his sermons and his work to revive the Church.
St. Augustine of Hippo
Saint Augustine was a theologian and philosopher who lived in the fourth century CE. He wrote extensively on rhetoric, and his work heavily influenced the development of public speaking during the medieval period.
Public Speaking in the Renaissance and Enlightenment Period
The renaissance and Enlightenment were the time of rebirth where art and literature flourished. This was also reflected in public speaking, which saw a resurgence in popularity. In fact, oratory became an essential skill for anyone who wanted to succeed in life.
Renaissance orators were known for their eloquence and style. They were able to communicate effectively with an audience and persuade them to their point of view.
The Enlightenment period worked as a stepping stone for the development of public speaking. This was because people started to question the authorities and their beliefs. They wanted to have a say in how they were governed and this led to an increase in political speeches.
Notable Figures in Public Speaking from Renaissance and Enlightenment Period
Some of the most notable figures from this time period include:
Francis Bacon was an English philosopher and statesman who is considered the founder of the scientific method. He was also a successful orator and wrote several essays on rhetoric. Especially, his “On Rhetoric, or the Art of Eloquence” is considered one of the most important works on rhetoric from the Renaissance period.
John Quincy Adams
John Quincy Adams was an American statesman who served as the sixth president of the United States. He also served as the professor of rhetoric at Harvard University and is considered one of the influential orators in American history.
Public Speaking in Modern Age
The modern age has seen the rise of mass media, which has had a profound effect on public speaking. In the past, public speaking was mainly used to communicate with small groups of people. However, with the advent of television and radio, it is now possible to reach a large audience with your message.
This has led to an increase in the number of public speakers. In fact, there are now more people who make a living from speaking than ever before. Individuals nowadays are also more interested in public speaking as it helps in career growth.
Public speaking today means more than just communicating with an audience. It has become an important tool for marketing and branding. For example, many companies use public speakers to promote their products and services.
Notable Figures in Public Speaking at Modern Age
Some of the most notable figures in rhetoric from the modern age include:
Winston Churchill was a British statesman who served as the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom during World War II. He is considered one of the most influential orators of the 20th century and gave many speeches that inspired the British people during the war.
Winston Churchill also won the Nobel prize in literature in 1953, which was in part due to his excellent speeches.
Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr. was an American civil rights activist who is best known for his speeches and writings on nonviolent resistance. He gave several influential speeches, such as “I Have a Dream” and “The Other America.”
Barack Obama was the 44th president of the United States. He is also a highly successful public speaker and has given many memorable speeches, such as “A More Perfect Union” and “The Audacity of Hope.”
Abraham Lincoln was the 16th president of the United States and is considered one of the most influential leaders in American history. He gave many famous speeches, such as the Gettysburg Address and the Emancipation Proclamation.
Public speaking has come a long way throughout history. From being used to communicate with small groups of people, it has now become an important tool for marketing and branding.
Notable figures in public speaking have emerged over the years, each with their own style and message. In the modern age, we are fortunate enough to have more platforms than ever before to share our message with the world.
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